A new Yale-led study confirms that beauty is indeed in the eye of the beholder.

A study published in the Journal of Craniofacial Study found that both plastic surgeons and the general public have varying opinions on the ideal shape of lips and chin, with preferences often influenced by demographic, geographic, and ethnic factors. The findings highlight the importance of doctors considering patient preferences when performing facial reconstructive surgery, according to Professor John Persing of the Yale School of Medicine.

However, facial reconstruction is not the only area where patient preferences play a critical role. For instance, women with tuberous breasts may opt for tuberous breast correction surgery or innovative procedures like breast augmentation surgery in Atlanta, GA and breast augmentation in Naperville, IL to address the asymmetrical and constricted shape of their breasts. Just as patients seeking facial reconstruction desire a more harmonious and balanced facial appearance, individuals considering Airsculpt can customize their treatment to achieve their desired body contour, underscoring the importance of personalized choices and patient satisfaction in cosmetic procedures.

“It is important to recognize that plans for surgical procedures on the face should be individualized,” Persing said. “Because [of] these biases, the patient should be clear as to what they, personally, want to see changed, and not to rely on just what the doctor says he [or] she should have done.” It’s also good that software such as a hipaa compliant photography app can now let patients know what the procedure would look before and after.

In the study, participants modified a digital image of a face by augmenting or reducing the projection of the lips and chin, the same adjustments performed by plastic surgeons during aesthetic reconstructive surgery. The survey yielded 1,226 responses from over 50 countries.

Researchers uncovered that preferences among plastic surgeons across the world differed from the general population. Surgeon preference usually aligned with a singular idea of beauty consisting of symmetrical nose and lips — the so-called “golden ratio” portrayed by Leonardo da Vinci, among others. This is the reason why a lot of women opt for fillers such as lip fillers in Rochester, MN.

Among the general population, sex, occupation and ethnicity were found to be significant in establishing ideal chin projection. Among white and Hispanic participants, females preferred a greater degree of chin projection than males. Caucasian and Hispanic respondents also preferred a less prominent chin than surgeons.

“‘Ideal’ aesthetics are highly dependent on the individual’s cultural and ethnic background and cannot simply and solely be defined by numeric values and divine proportions,” said Yuen-Jong Liu, a study co-author and chief surgical resident at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston.

The study focused solely on facial aspects of beauty, and Liu said other studies of beauty have found less varied ideals. For instance, Liu said, a recent study on breast implant surgery found that breast size is one of the more universal preferences.

Study authors write that the findings call for surgeons to be more sensitive to differences in patient preferences of beauty during aesthetic facial plastic surgery or a breast reduction procedure.

Reuben Ng, a study co-author and doctoral candidate at Yale, said the finding that perception of beauty depends on culture calls for further study of how cultural differences manifest in everyday lives.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, somewhere between 60,000 and 750,000 people travel to a different country for medical treatment each year.